08 - Fixed Fire Protection including Sprinklers

Automatic fire sprinklers (and other forms of fixed protection) when properly designed and maintained, provide the most reliable and proven fire protection system for most commercial, industrial and storage applications.

Fixed fire protection systems are actuated by smoke, flame, or heat; deliver fire extinguishing agents to the seat of a developing fire; and serve to control and often extinguish combustion before the fire service arrives.

What do we look for?


  • Reducing the magnitude of loss through the installation of effective fixed fire protection systems
  • The ability to reduce loss magnitude depends upon:
    • System coverage – does protection extend to all areas where a fire hazard is present?
    • System design – is it adequate for the occupancy or hazard being protected?
    • Fire extinguishing agent quantity – is it adequate for the required duration?
    • Inspection – is the frequency and scope adequate to maintain awareness of system conditions?
    • Testing – is periodic testing delivered on schedule?
    • Maintenance – is service and repair work provided in a timely manner?
    • Impairment management – is it thorough and effective?

Risk improvement ideas

Provide fixed fire protection systems of appropriate type, design, and capacity in all areas with combustible construction or occupancy.

Establish contracts for automatic sprinkler systems to test, service and maintain all installation control valves and water supplies, including pumps and tanks where installed, by a service provider qualified for such activity.

Establish contracts for total flooding gaseous fire extinguishing systems to test, service and maintain all agent containers, fire detection and discharge control equipment, and room integrity by a service provider qualified for such activity.

Implement a fire protection impairment program to manage each fixed fire protection system outage.  Program actions should include:

  • Eliminating sources of ignition and providing a fire watch in affected areas
  • Limiting impairments to the smallest area and duration.

Risk topics


Global standards

  • Automatic sprinklers
    • APSAD R1 (France) “Extinction automatique à eau de type sprinkleur” (Automatic fixed fire extinguishing installations of the water sprinkler type)
    • AS 2118.1-2006 (Australia) “Automatic fire sprinkler systems - General systems”
    • BS EN 12845 including LPC bulletins (United Kingdom) “LPC Rules for Automatic Sprinkler Installations Incorporating BS EN 12845”
    • CEA 4001en (Europe) “Sprinkler Systems: Planning and Installation”
    • NFPA 13 (USA) “Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems”
    • SS EN 12845 also known as  SBF 120:7 (Sweden) “Regler för automatiskt vattensprinklersystem” (Rules for the automatic water sprinkler systems)
    • VdS CEA 4001 (Germany) “Richtlinien für Sprinkleranlagen - Planung und Einbau” (Guidelines for sprinkler systems - Planning and installation)
  • Other fixed fire protection systems
    • NFPA 11 - Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam
    • NFPA 12 - Standard on Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems
    • NFPA 12A - Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems
    • NFPA 16 - Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems
    • NFPA 17 - Standard for Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems
    • NFPA 17A - Standard for Wet Chemical Extinguishing Systems
    • NFPA 18 - Standard on Wetting Agents
    • NFPA 20 - Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection
    • NFPA 22 - Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection
    • NFPA 24 - Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances
    • NFPA 25 - Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection
    • NFPA 750 - Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems
    • NFPA 2001 - Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems
    • NFPA 2010 - Standard for Fixed Aerosol Fire-Extinguishing Systems